Media format : Broadcast, Internet
Frequency : Daily
Geographical distribution area : National
Geographical area : Poland
Website : www.polskieradio.pl
Media language : Polish
Country : Poland
City : Warsaw
Address : al. Niepodległości 77/85, 00-977 Warszawa, ul. Myśliwiecka 3/5/7, 00-977 Warszawa, ul. Modzelewskiego 59, 00-977 Warszawa
Created : 18 août 1925
Owner : Polskie Radio i Telewizja (Polish Radio and Television)
Status : Public service
President of the Board of Directors : Andrzej Siezieniewski
Director of Programmes and Development : Piotr Lignar
Turnover : 60 million euros
Percentage represented by advertising : 75%
Market share : 20%
Salaried staff : 1 150 full-time, of which 450 journalists
The Polish state radio station was created in 1925 and quickly began broadcasting regular programmes. It broadcast from one of the most powerful transmitters in Europe at Raszyn until the Germany army destroyed the transmitter in 1939.
Before the Second World War, the radio station already owned nine regional stations in Krakow (15 February 1927), Poznań (24 April 1927), Katowice (4 December 1927), Wilno (15 January 1928), Lwów (15 January 1930), Łódź (2 February 1930), Toruń (15 January 1935), Warszawa II Varsovie II (1 March 1937) and Baranowicze (1 July 1938).
In 1974 Poland built a 645 metre transmitter of 2000 KW at Konstantynów in North-West of the country. It is still the tallest transmitter in the world. Polskie Radio can be heard as far as North Africa and in all of the Eastern Europe.
The station went digital in 2013.
Today there are 17 regional stations with independent status, as well as an Esperanto service available exclusively on the internet, and six national stations.
Programme 1 (Jedynka - First programme) – general: news and light music
Programme 2 (Dwójka - Second programme) – cultural
Programme 3 (Trójka - Third programme) – news, magazine programmes, classical music, debate
Programme 4 (Czwórka - Fourth programme) – aimed at young people, educational
Polskie Radio dla Zagranicy – Polish radio international service
Radio Parlament – parliamentary debate
Polskie Radio has drawn up rules and duties for journalists but these are not available to the public
1.2. – How is their application monitored? : Internally and externally
Journalists’ work is reviewed both through internal procedures by an ethics committee and externally, according to political criteria.
There is no specific time for reviewing information that has already been broadcast but there are regular and continual assessments within departments and during editorial meetings.
2.3. – Which systems are in place to identify and correct errors? Fact checking? : Internal and external
There is no department or person dedicated to fact-checking but different groups carry out regular reviews.
1) The media council contacts an editorial department if a serious error has been made; it uses professional criteria to carry out its investigations and, although it does not have real power, its opinions are symbolically important.
2) The internal council for programming is made up of five members nominated by the political parties. It is more concerned with the content of programmes and reports. In general, it spends one month with the department concerned.
3.1. – What is the relationship between editorial values and advertising content? : The law and the market
Advertising is seldom refused and definitely not for ideological reasons or values. Refusals are motivated by respect for the law, for instance the law regarding the promotion of alcohol
On the other hand, advertising slots are very variable and news programmes at peak viewing times are highly desirable advertising slots (up to eight minutes for 50 minutes of broadcasting time).
Partnerships are very common with this Polish public radio station which is seen as a desirable media sponsor.
These partnerships can have significant consequences and can result in programming changes or changes to the content of some programmes, for instance for a programme about literature, where only books supplied by the sponsor may be mentioned.
4.1. – How are press trips and embedded journalists managed? : External financing
Working in the field always requires external financing and, in the end, nobody is really concerned about what is ‘given’ in exchange, for instance, if content has to be adapted.
Editorial has very little financial resources and this is always the subject of bitter discussions. To cover the events in Israel and Palestine in July 2014, for example, journalists had to wait one week for a decision.
Outside of current affairs, the Foreign Minister can facilitate trips but only under conditions that they define, which generally means in order to report on their mutual aid projects. Once in place, the journalist can use the opportunity to cover additional subjects.
4.2. – How are conflicts of interests with the owner resolved? : There are occasional tensions
Public radio in Poland cannot show political bias, either in the news or in advertising. It must be objective and impartial. Generally these principles work, but not always, and occasionally there is a slides towards being a media support for the government of the day, particularly in times of major crisis.
4.3. – How are political and economic pressures managed? : Sometimes with difficulty
The Polskie Radio hierarchy generally manages to resist attempts to exert influence, but not always, and journalists sometimes accede to this.
Nevertheless, the pressures are more economic than political. Financial constraints are such that the government takes a close interest in audience numbers and value for money. High standards must be maintained with large audience numbers and this is not always easy to achieve.
4.4. – How is general news or “news in brief” treated? : Influenced by private media
National public radio has been tainted and for the past few years has been treating this type of human interest story much more than it did in the past. It now follows the rest of the media and covers subjects simply because the private radio stations have. Some claim that privately owned media has also significantly lowered journalistic and ethical standards and the country now finds itself in a situation where reference texts exist but daily professional pressures mean that they have less sway.
4.6. – How are amateur photos or videos treated? : Not relevant
4.7. – What is the status of permanent or freelance journalist blogs? : Used with caution
While the rules are not explicit regarding what is expressed off-air, caution is still required when journalists express themselves privately on websites, blogs or social media. A Polskie Radio employee was fired in 2013 for a Facebook post.
5.1. – What form of mediation is there with the public? Is there an ombudsman? : Via a spokesperson
Polskie Radio does not have a mediator but a spokesperson can respond to questions, if necessary, particularly if these are from a political power or an important citizens’ group.
Theoretically, there can also be mediation via the equivalent of the Polish press council.
5.2. – Is there a section for public comments? : Yes, but…
Listeners can sometimes react live on radio or on the website but there is no formalized system.
Polskie Radio has chosen not to provide a forum for comments on its website; listeners mostly express themselves through social media, number one being Twitter, then Facebook.
5.3. – How is the ‘right of reply’ managed? : According to the law
Polish law provides quite precise regulations regarding the right of reply but it is difficult to apply on radio when news is continually changing.
5.4. – How are public visits organised? : Often for schoolchildren
This is an established practice and Polskie Radio regularly receives visitors to its offices, often from schools.
Open Days are also organised.
5.5. – Are there organised meetings with the public? : During media visits
However, an editorial contact for journalists is available on the Polskie Radio website.
5.7. – How are internet forums managed? : No real forums
6.1. – Moving towards green printing? : Not relevant
6.2. – How sustainable are the infrastructure and logistics? : A start has been made
There is no compulsory recycling, the radio station staff are only just starting to systematically turn off their computers when they leave in the evening. Concern for the environment or for energy saving is only just beginning.
The station does not have a global media literacy strategy outside of regular visits to the offices, although journalists or presenters often go into schools to talk about their profession or the media. This is by invitation and on an individual basis.
7.2. – Is support provided for media in emerging countries? : Some training
There is some co-operation with Eastern Europe, particularly Ukraine; this is done mostly in the form of human resources and training rather than material.
Poland also houses an opposition Belarusian radio station which is banned in its own country.
8.1. – What commitments are there for continuous training? : No legal obligation
8.3. – Is there an apprenticeship tax? : There is no apprenticeship tax in Poland.